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Clinical Recommendations for Patients with Underlying Medical Conditions: COVID-19

Patients who are older, who have one or more underlying medical conditions, or who are not up to date on COVID-19 vaccination are at increased risk of severe outcomes of COVID-19, such as hospitalization, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), intubation or mechanical ventilation, or death.

The following underlying medical conditions have been associated with increased risk for severe COVID-19:

  • Chronic heart, lung, kidney, and liver disease
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity (BMI >30 kg/m2 or >95th percentile in children)
  • Disabilities
  • Neurological conditions such as dementia
  • Immunocompromising conditions or medications
  • Pregnancy and recent pregnancy
  • Smoking
  • Children who are medically complex (e.g., who have neurologic, genetic, or metabolic disorders or congenital heart disease)

Patients who are unvaccinated or who are not up to date with COVID-19 vaccines, including recommended boosters, are at increased risk for severe COVID-19 illness.

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